Intersection Marketing

Business Strengths + Insights from Market Intelligence = Customer-Compelling Values.

<h2><a href="http://johniduh.yolasite.com/breakthrough-marketing/eating-and-drinking-on-the-go-trends-led-beverage-manufacturers-introducing-plastic-and-cans-beverages-such-as-plastic-coke-lacasera-teems-eat-can-malt-can-juice-eat-" title="Eating-and-Drinking-on-the-go trends led beverage manufacturers introducing Plastic and Cans Beverages, such as plastic: Coke, Lacasera, Teems, eat, Can-malt, can-Juice eat.">Eating-and-Drinking-on-the-go trends led beverage manufacturers introducing Plastic and Can Beverages, such as plastic: Coke, Lacasera, Teems, Can-malt, Can-Juice eat</a>, etc</h2>

Eating-and-Drinking-on-the-go trends led beverage manufacturers introducing Plastic and Can Beverages, such as plastic: Coke, Lacasera, Teems, Can-malt, Can-Juice eat, etc

Posted 176 weeks ago
<h2><a href="http://johniduh.yolasite.com/breakthrough-marketing/trends-in-healthy-living-through-immune-boosting-led-alliance-in-motion-global-developed-c24-7" title="Trends in healthy living through immune boosting led Alliance in Motion Global developed:  C24/7">Trends in healthy living through immune boosting led Alliance in Motion Global developed: C24/7</a>.</h2>
<p><small><span>C24/7 Natura-Ceuticals contains the most number of anti-oxidants with approximately 22,000 phytonutrients in one product. The ingredients of C24/7 work in “synergy” to produce the maximum result for your body, making it the most potent anti-aging product in the history of supplementation.</span></small></p>
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<p><span>C24/7 is the new breakthrough in food supplements; a unique and patented formulation that delivers the highest amount of anti-oxidants and phyto-nutrients.<br/><br/>C24/7 is packed with benefits for different needs, from controlling blood sugar and cholesterol, to healthy blood circulation and sexual vitality.</span><span></span></p>

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Trends in healthy living through immune boosting led Alliance in Motion Global developed: C24/7.

C24/7 Natura-Ceuticals contains the most number of anti-oxidants with approximately 22,000 phytonutrients in one product. The ingredients of C24/7 work in “synergy” to produce the maximum result for your body, making it the most potent anti-aging product in the history of supplementation.

C24/7 is the new breakthrough in food supplements; a unique and patented formulation that delivers the highest amount of anti-oxidants and phyto-nutrients.

C24/7 is packed with benefits for different needs, from controlling blood sugar and cholesterol, to healthy blood circulation and sexual vitality.

Posted 176 weeks ago
<h2><a href="http://johniduh.yolasite.com/breakthrough-marketing/dual-trend-in-the-in-hot-drinks-and-the-use-of-herbs-led-kasapreko-a-ghanaian-based-alcoholic-manufacturer-introduces-alomo-bitters-" title="Dual-trend in the in Hot-Drinks and the use of herbs led KASAPREKO, a Ghanaian based alcoholic manufacturer introduces Alomo Bitters.">Dual-trend in the in Hot-Drinks and the use of herbs led KASAPREKO, a Ghanaian based alcoholic manufacturer introduces Alomo Bitters.</a></h2>
<p><small><strong>Alomo Bitters</strong><span class="apple-converted-space"> </span><span>is a herbal alcoholic product made</span><span> </span><span>from carefully chosen tropical plant extracts and</span><span> </span><span>very well known for its proven medicinal values.</span><span> </span><span>It has its roots in the traditional herbal industry</span><span> </span><span>that is meticulously researched by the Centre for</span><span> </span><span>Scientific Research into Plant Medicine a World</span><span> </span><span>Health Organization affiliate, based at Mampong</span><span> </span><span>Akuapem in the Eastern region of Ghana.</span></small></p>
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<p><span class="yui-tag-span yui-tag"><span class="yui-tag-span yui-tag"><strong><br/>Alomo Bitters</strong><span class="apple-converted-space"> </span><span>– A herbal based drink, is not just any ordinary alcoholic drink. With its origins from Ghana, Alomo Bitters is made from carefully selected tropical plant extracts which forms part of a secret recipe. It’s popular for its aphrodisiac qualities.</span></span><span><br/></span></span></p>
<p><span class="yui-tag-span yui-tag">To quote a recent article by Euromonitor -<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span><em>“Africa brings one of the most surprising alcohol growth stories in recent times. Distilled in Ghana, sales of Alomo Bitters in neighboring Nigeria have skyrocketed over the last few years. What’s behind the jump? The drink is said to hold aphrodisiac qualities for men and women. Nigerians mix the beverage with non-alcoholic beer – sales of that have soared in the country too. Plans to export the drink to more countries on the continent are said to be afoot. -</em><span class="apple-converted-space"></span><strong><em>Euromonitor’s</em></strong><span class="apple-converted-space"></span><em>Malandrankis says the supposed sexual enhancing properties “hit all the right buttons in Nigeria.” Watch out for it on local shelves soon.”</em><span></span></span></p>

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<p><span class="yui-tag-span yui-tag">Packaged in a<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span><strong>200ml PET, 30ml Sachet</strong><span class="apple-converted-space"> </span>and<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span><strong>750ml Glass</strong><span class="apple-converted-space"> </span>bottle Alomo Bitters is developed in conjunction with the Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine in Ghana, an affiliate of the World Health Organization,<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span><strong>Alomo Bitters contains natural components/ingredients which promote/stimulate/enhances vitality and general well being.</strong><span></span></span></p>

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<p><span class="yui-tag-span yui-tag">Alomo Bitters is also c<strong>leanses bowel and relieves body pain, helps ease menstrual pains/cramps in women and contains anti malaria properties</strong><span></span></span></p>

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<p><span class="yui-tag-span yui-tag">Alomo Bitters is enjoyed all over the world, it’s vitalizing and best enjoyed straight or mixed with your favorite juice or soda.<span></span></span></p>

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<p><span class="yui-tag-span yui-tag">In 2012 Alomo Bitters was awarded a Super Brand. It has also been identified to be amongst the top 5 emerging brands in the world by CNN money.<span></span></span></p>

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<p><a href="http://money.cnn.com/gallery/news/companies/2013/10/08/exotic-drinks/6.html"><strong><span class="yui-tag-span yui-tag"><a href="http://money.cnn.com/gallery/news/companies/2013/10/08/exotic-drinks/6.html">http://money.cnn.com/gallery/news/companies/2013/10/08/exotic-drinks/6.html</a></span></strong></a></p>
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Dual-trend in the in Hot-Drinks and the use of herbs led KASAPREKO, a Ghanaian based alcoholic manufacturer introduces Alomo Bitters.

Alomo Bitters is a herbal alcoholic product made from carefully chosen tropical plant extracts and very well known for its proven medicinal values. It has its roots in the traditional herbal industry that is meticulously researched by the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine a World Health Organization affiliate, based at Mampong Akuapem in the Eastern region of Ghana.


Alomo Bitters
 – A herbal based drink, is not just any ordinary alcoholic drink. With its origins from Ghana, Alomo Bitters is made from carefully selected tropical plant extracts which forms part of a secret recipe. It’s popular for its aphrodisiac qualities.

To quote a recent article by Euromonitor - “Africa brings one of the most surprising alcohol growth stories in recent times. Distilled in Ghana, sales of Alomo Bitters in neighboring Nigeria have skyrocketed over the last few years. What’s behind the jump? The drink is said to hold aphrodisiac qualities for men and women. Nigerians mix the beverage with non-alcoholic beer – sales of that have soared in the country too. Plans to export the drink to more countries on the continent are said to be afoot. -Euromonitor’sMalandrankis says the supposed sexual enhancing properties “hit all the right buttons in Nigeria.” Watch out for it on local shelves soon.”

Packaged in a 200ml PET, 30ml Sachet and 750ml Glass bottle Alomo Bitters is developed in conjunction with the Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine in Ghana, an affiliate of the World Health Organization, Alomo Bitters contains natural components/ingredients which promote/stimulate/enhances vitality and general well being.

Alomo Bitters is also cleanses bowel and relieves body pain, helps ease menstrual pains/cramps in women and contains anti malaria properties

Alomo Bitters is enjoyed all over the world, it’s vitalizing and best enjoyed straight or mixed with your favorite juice or soda.

In 2012 Alomo Bitters was awarded a Super Brand. It has also been identified to be amongst the top 5 emerging brands in the world by CNN money.

http://money.cnn.com/gallery/news/companies/2013/10/08/exotic-drinks/6.html

Posted 176 weeks ago
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<h2><a href="http://johniduh.yolasite.com/gurus-on-marketing/chinalife-introduced-%E2%80%9Cultra-slim-tea%E2%80%9D-kinetizing-" title="Chinalife Introduced “Ultra Slim Tea” - Kinetizing!">Chinalife Introduced “Ultra Slim Tea” - Kinetizing!</a></h2>
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<p class="MsoNormal"><span></span><strong>Chinalife,</strong> born in 2007,  felt that the concept of natural healthy living with herbs and tea had, for far too long, been thrown together with images of perfectly pure people restricting themselves from indulgence. </p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span>With such reason in mind, <strong>Chinalife</strong> introduced </span><strong>Ultra Slim Tea, </strong><span>a high grade herbal tea traditionally used to help reduce weight & regulate blood fat levels - an effective and natural way to lose weight. </span><strong>Ultra Slim Tea</strong><span> can be infused up to 3 times simply by adding fresh water. Ultra Slim Tea defines a  market space, Kinetizing!</span></p>

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Chinalife, born in 2007,  felt that the concept of natural healthy living with herbs and tea had, for far too long, been thrown together with images of perfectly pure people restricting themselves from indulgence. 

With such reason in mind, Chinalife introduced Ultra Slim Tea, a high grade herbal tea traditionally used to help reduce weight & regulate blood fat levels - an effective and natural way to lose weight. Ultra Slim Tea can be infused up to 3 times simply by adding fresh water. Ultra Slim Tea defines a  market space, Kinetizing!

 

Posted 177 weeks ago
<h2><a href="http://johniduh.yolasite.com/gurus-on-marketing/historical-flashback-create-a-business-space-in-the-newspaper-industry" title="Historical Flashback create a Business space in the Newspaper Industry">Historical Flashback creates a Business space in the Newspaper Industry</a></h2>
<p><span>The desire to document Nigeria’s historical past events has led to the emergence of a newspaper called <strong>Historical Flashback.</strong> The newspaper  serves as the reservoir of information about Nigeria’s past from the pre colonial period, publishing past historical stories in a refreshed manner for documentation purpose. Many things happened in the country  and they continue to happen because many people did not know what happened in the past. </span><strong>Historical Flashback</strong><span> is the first of its kind in the newspaper industry. </span><strong>Historical Flashback</strong><span> is in the market to fill the gap of documentation. The documentation of the past and materials about Nigeria’s past events that cannot be found anywhere. “If you pick the newspaper you can read about events of 100 years ago, stories of past events before and after the country’s independence. The publishers are researching on the past stories in the country so that they can be freshly presented for those who have anything to do with Nigeria. It’s not just newspaper, its historical, as well as documented information. </span></p>

Historical Flashback creates a Business space in the Newspaper Industry

The desire to document Nigeria’s historical past events has led to the emergence of a newspaper called Historical Flashback. The newspaper  serves as the reservoir of information about Nigeria’s past from the pre colonial period, publishing past historical stories in a refreshed manner for documentation purpose. Many things happened in the country  and they continue to happen because many people did not know what happened in the past. Historical Flashback is the first of its kind in the newspaper industry. Historical Flashback is in the market to fill the gap of documentation. The documentation of the past and materials about Nigeria’s past events that cannot be found anywhere. “If you pick the newspaper you can read about events of 100 years ago, stories of past events before and after the country’s independence. The publishers are researching on the past stories in the country so that they can be freshly presented for those who have anything to do with Nigeria. It’s not just newspaper, its historical, as well as documented information. 

Posted 177 weeks ago
<h2><a href="http://johniduh.yolasite.com/gurus-on-marketing/kinetizing-marketing-has-the-ability-to-drive-successes-consider-the-introduction-of-energy-bars-whose-market-was-fragmented-by-definition-targeting-at-different-demograp" title="Kinetizing Marketing has the ability to drive successes. Consider the introduction of energy bars, whose market was fragmented by  definition targeting at different demographics.">Kinetizing Marketing has the ability to drive successes. Consider the introduction of energy bars, whose market was fragmented by definition targeting at different demographics.</a></h2>
<p><strong><span> </span></strong><strong><span>Energy bars</span></strong><span> are supplemental bars containing </span><span><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cereal" title="Cereal"><span>cereals</span></a></span><span> and other high energy foods targeted at people that require quick energy but do not have time for a meal. They are different from </span><span><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_drink" title="Energy drink"><span>energy drinks</span></a></span><span>, which contain </span><span><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caffeine" title="Caffeine"><span>caffeine</span></a></span><span>, whereas bars provide </span><span><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_energy" title="Food energy"><span>food energy</span></a>. </span><span>Holland & Barrett stock a wide range of energy bars that combine </span><a href="http://www.hollandandbarrett.com/pages/categories.asp?cid=5"><span>sports nutrition</span></a><span> with great tasting confectionary. Customer favourite Powerbar, offer a wide choice of tasty energy bars that are a great source of </span><strong>protein</strong><span> and long lasting energy. Trek bars also come in a range of delicious forms, including protein packed flapjacks and virtually fat free brownies.</span>However, there are Energy bars for women, for children, for sports people; even protein bar, Nutrition bar, Honey bar etc.</p>

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Kinetizing Marketing has the ability to drive successes. Consider the introduction of energy bars, whose market was fragmented by definition targeting at different demographics.

 Energy bars are supplemental bars containing cereals and other high energy foods targeted at people that require quick energy but do not have time for a meal. They are different from energy drinks, which contain caffeine, whereas bars provide food energyHolland & Barrett stock a wide range of energy bars that combine sports nutrition with great tasting confectionary. Customer favourite Powerbar, offer a wide choice of tasty energy bars that are a great source of protein and long lasting energy. Trek bars also come in a range of delicious forms, including protein packed flapjacks and virtually fat free brownies.However, there are Energy bars for women, for children, for sports people; even protein bar, Nutrition bar, Honey bar etc.

 

Posted 177 weeks ago
<p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span>Revlon: An ultimate Kinetizing Marketer, smart at Category innovation. Consider  the innovation of  @Colorstay Lipstick!“</span></strong></p>

<p class="MsoNormal"><span>Revlon is a global color cosmetics, hair color, beauty tools, fragrances, skincare, anti-perspirant / deodorants and beauty care products company whose vision is<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span></span><span class="corporatebold"><strong>Glamour, Excitement and Innovation through High-quality Products at Affordable Prices</strong></span>. <span>The company began its success with <strong>opaque long-lasting nail enamel</strong> sold to beauty salons. Revlon sold its nail enamel through department stores and selected drugstores. llicitudin.</span> <span>Revlon® is one of the strongest consumer brand franchises in the world. Revlon’s global brand portfolio includes Revlon® color cosmetics, Almay® color cosmetics, SinfulColors® color cosmetics, Pure Ice® color cosmetics, Revlon ColorSilk® hair color, Revlon® beauty tools, Charlie® fragrances, Mitchum® anti-perspirant / deodorants, and Ultima II® and Gatineau® skincare and its products are sold in over 100 countries across six continents. Websites featuring current product and promotional information can be reached at<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span></span><span><a href="http://www.revlon.com/" target="_blank"><span><a href="http://www.revlon.com">www.revlon.com</a></span></a></span><span>,</span><span></span></p>

Revlon: An ultimate Kinetizing Marketer, smart at Category innovation. Consider  the innovation of  @Colorstay Lipstick!“

Revlon is a global color cosmetics, hair color, beauty tools, fragrances, skincare, anti-perspirant / deodorants and beauty care products company whose vision is Glamour, Excitement and Innovation through High-quality Products at Affordable Prices. The company began its success with opaque long-lasting nail enamel sold to beauty salons. Revlon sold its nail enamel through department stores and selected drugstores. llicitudin. Revlon® is one of the strongest consumer brand franchises in the world. Revlon’s global brand portfolio includes Revlon® color cosmetics, Almay® color cosmetics, SinfulColors® color cosmetics, Pure Ice® color cosmetics, Revlon ColorSilk® hair color, Revlon® beauty tools, Charlie® fragrances, Mitchum® anti-perspirant / deodorants, and Ultima II® and Gatineau® skincare and its products are sold in over 100 countries across six continents. Websites featuring current product and promotional information can be reached at www.revlon.com,

Posted 177 weeks ago
<h2><a href="http://johniduh.yolasite.com/gurus/starbucks%E2%80%98-howard-schultz-is-one-of-my-nominees-for-kinetizing-strategy" title="Starbucks‘ HOWARD SCHULTZ is one of my nominees for kinetizing strategy" target="_self">Starbucks‘ HOWARD SCHULTZ is one of my nominees for kinetizing </a>Initiatives</h2>
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<div><span class="userContent">When HOWARD SCHULTZ, starbucks ceo till year 2000,came to the company in 1982, he recognized an unfilled niche for “cafes serving gourmet coffee directly to customers“. This strategic initiative helps starbucks achieve loyal customer base in Seatle. In the next growth phase, it applied the same successful formular that had worked wo<span class="text_exposed_show">nders in seattle, first in other cities in the pacific Northwest, then through out North America, and finally, across the globe. Once starbucks had established itself as a presence in thousands of cities internationally, it sought to increase the number of purchases by existing customers with “kinetizing strategy“ that led to new in-store merchandise including compilation CDs, Starbucks Duetto Visa Cards that allows customer to recieve points towards starbucks‘ purchases when they use it; and high-speed internet wireless access at thousands of starbucks‘ HOTSPOTS through a deal with T-MOBILE. Finally, starbucks kinetized into grocery store aisles with Frappucino bottled drinks, starbucks‘ self-branded ice-cream, and the purchase of a tea retailer, Tazor Tea!</span></span></div>
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Starbucks‘ HOWARD SCHULTZ is one of my nominees for kinetizing Initiatives

When HOWARD SCHULTZ, starbucks ceo till year 2000,came to the company in 1982, he recognized an unfilled niche for “cafes serving gourmet coffee directly to customers“. This strategic initiative helps starbucks achieve loyal customer base in Seatle. In the next growth phase, it applied the same successful formular that had worked wonders in seattle, first in other cities in the pacific Northwest, then through out North America, and finally, across the globe. Once starbucks had established itself as a presence in thousands of cities internationally, it sought to increase the number of purchases by existing customers with “kinetizing strategy“ that led to new in-store merchandise including compilation CDs, Starbucks Duetto Visa Cards that allows customer to recieve points towards starbucks‘ purchases when they use it; and high-speed internet wireless access at thousands of starbucks‘ HOTSPOTS through a deal with T-MOBILE. Finally, starbucks kinetized into grocery store aisles with Frappucino bottled drinks, starbucks‘ self-branded ice-cream, and the purchase of a tea retailer, Tazor Tea!
Posted 177 weeks ago
<h2><a href="http://johniduh.yolasite.com/blog/ford-repositioned-existing-products-services-resulting-in-an-original-category-" title="Ford Used Kinetizing Model Repositioned Existing Products/Services Resulting in an Original Category." target="_self">Ford Repositioned Existing Products/Services Resulting in an Original Category.</a></h2>
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<p><span>In the United Kingdom, Ford positioned its Galaxy Minivan in relation to First-Class Air Travel comfortable enough to be suitable for busy executives. By highlighting attributes far different from those that would appeal to buyers looking for a family vehicle, the automaker used a classic Kinetizng approach created a Minivan subcategory.</span></p>
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Ford Repositioned Existing Products/Services Resulting in an Original Category.

In the United Kingdom, Ford positioned its Galaxy Minivan in relation to First-Class Air Travel comfortable enough to be suitable for busy executives. By highlighting attributes far different from those that would appeal to buyers looking for a family vehicle, the automaker used a classic Kinetizng approach created a Minivan subcategory.

Posted 177 weeks ago
<h2><a href="http://johniduh.yolasite.com/blog/royal-philips-used-market-insight-to-kinetize-attuned-to-consumer-tech-trend" title="ROYAL PHILIPS Leverage Market Insight Plus Consumer Electronics-Trend to Kinetize" target="_self">ROYAL PHILIPS Used Insights from Consumer Electronics-Trends, Kinetiz</a>ing</h2>
<p><span class="usercontent"><span>Philips researchers asked 1,650 consumers and 180 customers in dozens of in-depth and qualitative interviews and focus groups on what was most important to them in using technology. Respondents from the Uk, U.S, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Hong Kong, China and Brazil agreed on one theing: they wanted the benefits of tech</span></span><span class="textexposedshow"><span>nology without the hassles. With these, Philips crafted “Sense and Simplicity” campaign with the believe that their brands plus innovation will reflect simplicity – the major of mordern technology. To achieve its plans, Philips tirlessly integrate media: the campaign consists of prints, Online, Television advertisement showcasing perspectives on the journey to simplicity, resonating with consumers. It just make sense!</span></span></p>

ROYAL PHILIPS Used Insights from Consumer Electronics-Trends, Kinetizing

Philips researchers asked 1,650 consumers and 180 customers in dozens of in-depth and qualitative interviews and focus groups on what was most important to them in using technology. Respondents from the Uk, U.S, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Hong Kong, China and Brazil agreed on one theing: they wanted the benefits of technology without the hassles. With these, Philips crafted “Sense and Simplicity” campaign with the believe that their brands plus innovation will reflect simplicity – the major of mordern technology. To achieve its plans, Philips tirlessly integrate media: the campaign consists of prints, Online, Television advertisement showcasing perspectives on the journey to simplicity, resonating with consumers. It just make sense!

Posted 177 weeks ago

Positioning: Popularized by Al Ries and Jack Trout

Posted by John Iduh on Friday, April 12, 2013 Under: Business Principles That Work

In their 1981 book, Positioning: The Battle for your Mind, Al Ries and Jack Trout describe how positioning is used as a communication tool to reach target customers in a crowded marketplace. Jack Trout published an article on positioning in 1969, and regular use of the term dates back to 1972 when Ries and Trout published a series of articles in Advertising Age called "The Positioning Era." Not long thereafter, Madison Avenue advertising executives began to develop positioning slogans for their clients and positioning became a key aspect of marketing communications.

Positioning: The Battle for your Mind has become a classic in the field of marketing. The following is a summary of the key points made by Ries and Trout in their book.

Information Overload

Ries and Trout explain that while positioning begins with a product, the concept really is about positioning that product in the mind of the customer. This approach is needed because consumers are bombarded with a continuous stream of advertising, with advertisers spending several hundred dollars annually per consumer in the U.S. The consumer's mind reacts to this high volume of advertising by accepting only what is consistent with prior knowledge or experience.

It is quite difficult to change a consumer's impression once it is formed. Consumers cope with information overload by oversimplifying and are likely to shut out anything inconsistent with their knowledge and experience. In an over-communicated environment, the advertiser should present a simplified message and make that message consistent with what the consumer already believes by focusing on the perceptions of the consumer rather than on the reality of the product.


Getting Into the Mind of the Consumer

The easiest way of getting into someone's mind is to be first. It is very easy to remember who is first, and much more difficult to remember who is second. Even if the second entrant offers a better product, the first mover has a large advantage that can make up for other shortcomings.

However, all is not lost for products that are not the first. By being the first to claim a unique position in the mind the consumer, a firm effectively can cut through the noise level of other products. For example, Miller Lite was not the first light beer, but it was the first to be positioned as a light beer, complete with a name to support that position. Similarly, Lowenbrau was the most popular German beer sold in America, but Beck's Beer successfully carved a unique position using the advertising,

"You've tasted the German beer that's the most popular in America. Now taste the German beer that's the most popular in Germany."

Consumers rank brands in their minds. If a brand is not number one, then to be successful it somehow must relate itself to the number one brand. A campaign that pretends that the market leader does not exist is likely to fail. Avis tried unsuccessfully for years to win customers, pretending that the number one Hertz did not exist. Finally, it began using the line,

"Avis in only No. 2 in rent-a-cars, so why go with us? We try harder."

After launching the campaign, Avis quickly became profitable. Whether Avis actually tried harder was not particularly relevant to their success. Rather, consumers finally were able to relate Avis to Hertz, which was number one in their minds.

Another example is that of the soft-drink 7-Up, which was No. 3 behind Coke and Pepsi. By relating itself to Coke and Pepsi as the "Uncola", 7-Up was able to establish itself in the mind of the consumer as a desirable alternative to the standard colas.

When there is a clear market leader in the mind of the consumer, it can be nearly impossible to displace the leader, especially in the short-term. On the other hand, a firm usually can find a way to position itself in relation to the market leader so that it can increase its market share. It usually is a mistake, however, to challenge the leader head-on and try to displace it.


Positioning of a Leader

Historically, the top three brands in a product category occupy market share in a ratio of 4:2:1. That is, the number one brand has twice the market share of number two, which has twice the market share of number three. Ries and Trout argue that the success of a brand is not due to the high level of marketing acumen of the company itself, but rather, it is due to the fact that the company was first in the product category. They use the case of Xerox to make this point. Xerox was the first plain-paper copier and was able to sustain its leadership position. However, time after time the company failed in other product categories in which it was not first.

Similarly, IBM failed when it tried to compete with Xerox in the copier market, and Coca-Cola failed in its effort to use Mr. Pibb to take on Dr. Pepper. These examples support the point that the success of a brand usually is due to its being first in the market rather than the marketing abilities of the company. The power of the company comes from the power of its brand, not the other way around.

With this point in mind, there are certain things that a market leader should do to maintain the leadership position. First, Ries and Trout emphasize what it should not do, and that is boast about being number one. If a firm does so, then customers will think that the firm is insecure in its position if it must reinforce it by saying so.

If a firm was the first to introduce a product, then the advertising campaign should reinforce this fact. Coca-Cola's "the real thing" does just that, and implies that other colas are just imitations.

Another strategy that a leader can follow to maintain its position is the multibrand strategy. This strategy is to introduce multiple brands rather than changing existing ones that hold leadership positions. It often is easier and cheaper to introduce a new brand rather than change the positioning of an existing brand. Ries and Trout call this strategy a single-position strategy because each brand occupies a single, unchanging position in the mind of the consumer.

Finally, change is inevitable and a leader must be willing to embrace change rather than resist it. When new technology opens the possibility of a new market that may threaten the existing one, a successful firm should consider entering the new market so that it will have the first-mover advantage in it. For example, in the past century the New York Central Railroad lost its leadership as air travel became possible. The company might have been able to maintain its leadership position had it used its resources to form an airline division.

Sometimes it is necessary to adopt a broader name in order to adapt to change. For example, Haloid changed its name to Haloid Xerox and later to simply Xerox. This is a typical pattern of changing Name 1 to an expanded Name 1 - Name 2, and later to just Name 2.


Positioning of a Follower

Second-place companies often are late because they have chosen to spend valuable time improving their product before launching it. According to Ries and Trout, it is better to be first and establish leadership.

If a product is not going to be first, it then must find an unoccupied position in which it can be first. At a time when larger cars were popular, Volkswagen introduced the Beetle with the slogan "Think small." Volkswagen was not the first small car, but they were the first to claim that position in the mind of the consumer.

Other positions that firms successfully have claimed include:

  • age (Geritol)

  • high price (Mobil 1 synthetic engine lubricant)

  • gender (Virginia Slims)

  • time of day (Nyquil night-time cold remedy)

  • place of distribution (L'eggs in supermarkets)

  • quantity (Schaefer - "the one beer to have when you're having more than one.")

It most likely is a mistake to build a brand by trying to appeal to everyone. There are too many brands that already have claimed a position and have become entrenched leaders in their positions. A product that seeks to be everything to everyone will end up being nothing to everyone.


Repositioning the Competition

Sometimes there are no unique positions to carve out. In such cases, Ries and Trout suggest repositioning a competitor by convincing consumers to view the competitor in a different way. Tylenol successfully repositioned aspirin by running advertisements explaining the negative side effects of aspirin.

Consumers tend to perceive the origin of a product by its name rather than reading the label to find out where it really is made. Such was the case with vodka when most vodka brands sold in the U.S. were made in the U.S. but had Russian names. Stolichnaya Russian vodka successfully repositioned its Russian-sounding competitors by exposing the fact that they all actually were made in the U.S., and that Stolichnaya was made in Leningrad, Russia.

When Pringle's new-fangled potato chips were introduced, they quickly gained market share. However, Wise potato chips successfully repositioned Pringle's in the mind of consumers by listing some of Pringle's non-natural ingredients that sounded like harsh chemicals, even though they were not. Wise potato chips of course, contained only "Potatoes. Vegetable oil. Salt." As a resulting of this advertising, Pringle's quickly lost market share, with consumers complaining that Pringle's tasted like cardboard, most likely as a consequence of their thinking about all those unnatural ingredients. Ries and Trout argue that is usually is a lost cause to try to bring a brand back into favor once it has gained a bad image, and that in such situations it is better to introduce an entirely new brand.

Repositioning a competitor is different from comparative advertising. Comparative advertising seeks to convince the consumer that one brand is simply better than another. Consumers are not likely to be receptive to such a tactic.


The Power of a Name

A brand's name is perhaps the most important factor affecting perceptions of it. In the past, before there was a wide range of brands available, a company could name a product just about anything. These days, however, it is necessary to have a memorable name that conjures up images that help to position the product.

Ries and Trout favor descriptive names rather than coined ones like Kodak or Xerox. Names like DieHard for a battery, Head & Shoulders for a shampoo, Close-Up for a toothpaste, People for a gossip magazine. While it is more difficult to protect a generic name under trademark law, Ries and Trout believe that in the long run it is worth the effort and risk. In their opinion, coined names may be appropriate for new products in which a company is first to market with a sought-after product, in which case the name is not so important.

Margarine is a name that does not very well position the product it is describing. The problem is that it sounds artificial and hides the true origin of the product. Ries and Trout propose that "soy butter" would have been a much better name for positioning the product as an alternative to the more common type of butter that is made from milk. While some people might see soy in a negative light, a promotional campaign could be developed to emphasize a sort of "pride of origin" for soy butter.

Another everyday is example is that of corn syrup, which is viewed by consumers as an inferior alternative to sugar. To improve the perceptions of corn syrup, one supplier began calling it "corn sugar", positioning it as an alternative to cane sugar or beet sugar.

Ries and Trout propose that selecting the right name is important for positioning just about anything, not just products. For example, the Clean Air Act has a name that is difficult to oppose, as do "fair trade" laws. Even a person's name impacts his or her success in life. One study showed that on average, schoolteachers grade essays written by children with names like David and Michael a full letter grade higher than those written by children with names like Hubert and Elmer.

Eastern Airlines was an example of a company limited by its name. Air travel passengers always viewed it as a regional airline that served the eastern U.S., even though it served a much wider area, including the west coast. Airlines such as American and United did not have such a perception problem. (Eastern Airlines ceased operations in 1991.)

Another problem that some companies face is confusion with another company that has a similar name. Consumers frequently confused the tire manufacturer B.F. Goodrich with Goodyear. The Goodyear blimp had made Goodyear tires well-known, and Goodyear frequently received credit by consumers for tire products that B.F. Goodrich has pioneered. (B.F. Goodrich eventually sold its tire business to Uniroyal.)

Other companies have changed their names to something more general, and as a result create confusion with other similar-sounding companies. Take for instance The Continental Group, Inc. and The Continental Corporation. Few people confidently can say which makes cans and which sells insurance.


The No-Name Trap

People tend use abbreviations when they have fewer syllables than the original term. GE is often used instead of General Electric. IBM instead of International Business Machines. In order to make their company names more general and easier to say, many corporations have changed their legal names to a series of two or three letters. Ries and Trout argue that such changes usually are unwise.

Companies having a broad recognition may be able to use the abbreviated names and consumers will make the translation in their minds. When they hear "GM", they think "General Motors". However, lesser known companies tend to lose their identity when they use such abbreviations. Most people don't know the types of business in which companies named USM or AMP are engaged.

The same applies to people's names as well. While some famous people are known by their initials (such as FDR and JFK), it is only after they become famous that they begin using their initials. Ries and Trout advise managers who aspire for name recognition to use an actual name rather then first and middle initials. The reason that initials do not lead to recognition is that the human mind works by sounds, not by spellings.

Most companies began selling a single product, and the name of the company usually reflected that product. As the successful firms grew in to conglomerates, their original names became limiting. Ries and Trout advise companies seeking more general names to select a shorter name made of words, not individual letters. For example, for Trans World Airlines, they favored truncating it simply to Trans World instead removing all words and using the letters TWA.


The Free-Ride Trap

A company introducing a new product often is tempted to use the brand name of an existing product, avoiding the need to build the brand from scratch. For example, Alka-Seltzer named a new product Alka-Seltzer Plus. Ries and Trout do not favor this strategy since the original name already in positioned in the consumer's mind. In fact, consumers viewed Alka-Seltzer Plus simply as a better Alka-Seltzer, and the sales of Alka-Seltzer Plus came at the expense of Alka-Seltzer, not from the market share of the competition.

Some firms have built a wide range of products on a single brand name. Others, such as Procter & Gamble have selected new names for each new product, carefully positioning the product in a different part of the consumer's mind. Ries and Trout maintain that a single brand name cannot hold multiple positions; either the new product will not be successful or the original product bearing the name will lose its leadership position.

Nonetheless, some companies do not want their new products to be anonymous with an unrecognized name. However, Ries and Trout propose that anonymity is not so bad; in fact, it is a resource. When the product eventually catches the attention of the media, it will have the advantage of being seen without any previous bias, and if a firm prepares for this event well, once under the spotlight the carefully designed positioning can be communicated exactly as intended. This moment of fame is a one-shot event and once it has passed, the product will not have a second chance to be fresh and new.


The Line Extension Trap

Line extensions are tempting for companies as a way to leverage an existing popular brand. However, if the brand name has become near generic so that consumers consider the name and the product to be one and the same, Ries and Trout generally do not believe that a line extension is a good idea.

Consider the case of Life Savers candy. To consumers, the brand name is synonymous with the hard round candy that has a hole in the middle. Nonetheless, the company introduced a Life Savers chewing gum. This use of the Life Savers name was not consistent with the consumer's view of it, and the Life Savers chewing gum brand failed. The company later introduced the first brand of soft bubble gum and gave it a new name: Bubble Yum. This product was very successful because it not only had a name different from the hard candy, it also had the the advantage of being the first soft bubble gum.

Ries and Trout cite many examples of failures due to line extensions. The consistent pattern in these cases is that either the new product does not succeed, or the original successful product loses market share as a result of its position being weakened by a diluted brand name.


When Line Extensions Can Work

Despite the disadvantages of line extensions, there are some cases in which it is not economically feasible to create a new brand and in which a line extension might work. Some of the cases provided by Ries and Trout include:

  • Low volume product - if the sales volume is not expected to be high.

  • Crowded market - if there is no unique position that the product can occupy.

  • Small ad budget - without strong advertising support, it might make sense to use the house name.

  • Commodity product - an undifferentiated commodity product has less need of its own name than does a breakthrough product.

  • Distribution by sales reps - products distributed through reps may not need a separate brand name. Those sold on store shelves benefit more from their own name.


Positioning Has Broad Applications

The concept of positioning applies to products in the broadest sense. Services, tourist destinations, countries, and even careers can benefit from a well-developed positioning strategy that focuses on a niche that is unoccupied in the mind of the consumer or decision-maker.


Recommended Reading

Al Ries and Jack Trout, Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind

The bestselling marketing classic on which this summary is based. Covers the full details of positioning principles. Ries and Trout write in an easy-to-understand manner, using successes and failures of real products as examples to help the reader internalize the principles and develop an intuitive feel for them.


In : Business Principles That Work 



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